Why do viruses transform? | Science

Un cartel advierte contra la nueva cepa del virus en Londres, este martes.

Everything that relies on genetic material has a responsibility to transform and transform. Like he is SARS-CoV-2, This is a virus ARNLike us, human beings of DNA and RNA, we are gradually changing. DNA (like RNA) is a macromolecule formed by the union of many other small molecules, forming a large array when placed in a row. The order in which the pieces are placed in order produces a sentence similar to a word made up of millions of letters. This text contains instructions for the operation of its carrier, be it a viral particle (each member of the virus’s army) or a human cell. A change in one or more letters within that megaword is what we call a mutation. This change sometimes modifies the meaning of a message, sometimes making it difficult to understand some errors in a written text and misunderstanding others.

Contains SARS-CoV-2 RNA 30.000 Letters, And one of the basic steps in the spread of the virus is to make copies of this megaword for each future viral particle. To do this, once inside an infected cell, it uses a very precise molecular copier, but there is a limit to everything. Each viral particle can replicate thousands of times in a single cell, affecting millions of cells of the same individual, and causing Infectious disease, Affecting millions of people at once. It is logical that errors occur because there is so much activity involved in copying RNA. When you copy something more, you are more likely to make mistakes. One can recite his first eight family names from memory, but if he does it a hundred times he will be confused.

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Therefore, mutation is not an unforeseen occurrence, as DNA and RNA are dynamic and labeled molecules that regularly copy for their functions. They undergo changes and transform as part of their biological existence. Our DNA is also transformed, and the moles or cancer cells in our skin come from unavoidable faults. In fact, although we do not call them mutations, progressive changes in DNA cause us to change in relation to photos from ten years ago.

DNA and RNA make unintentional changes. We may hear the statement, “It is not surprising that viruses become more and more contagious,” but we must understand that these changes are not for a purpose. Mutations are pre-adaptive, which means they happen by accident, and then we see what happens. If innovations make the bearer a better survivor and make it easier for him to reproduce, they will tend to spread and disappear if they create a burden. Therefore, the fact that the changes are random does not contradict the notion that more infectious viral variants appear more frequently. The RNA of viruses undergoes mutations, some producing more infectious virus particles and others less.

More can be poured

With pure competition, the most contagious is the tendency to consume the least amount of land. Graphically speaking, if a viral particle is placed on a towel to hold a place on the beach, there is no room for another, or at least more difficult. In this way, as viruses become more contagious and viruses transform into more and more infectious diseases, we notice their presence as they become more successful. Therefore, in order to analyze the significance of a mutation, it is first necessary to be clear about whether it has an effect or not. For example, changing the word “car” to “automobile” in a sentence can be considered an ineffective change. Equivalent mutation would not be a burden or a benefit to the virus.

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Recently Variant VUI – 202012/01 Dell SARS-CoV-2, Which increases the relative presence and invites us to think that it is more contagious. Everything seems to indicate that the transformations it has experienced have a clear effect. One of the changes in its text is the subtle modification of the piece that allows the viral particles to bind to our cells, the S protein. We can imagine it as a sticker, which is why it is more contagious: it immediately attaches to some of our cells to start an infection through the bloodstream through the lungs.

We can not yet confirm that mutations in this variant have other effects, but we can suggest a possible logical result: if it shows that it is really more contagious, it will eat the ground from others and increase its presence, and the number of individuals infected. Fortunately, infectious potential has not been associated with greater aggression. In fact, when there is a very aggressive variant it tends to reduce its infectious potential because if it keeps the infected in bed, they can not lead a rhythm of life and it allows them to pollute people. In fact, aggression and infectious potential are often balanced, but we still do not know if this is the case with this variant. In fact, the primary results do not show significant differences in their aggressiveness. The gradual accumulation of mutations makes a virus indistinguishable from its predecessors because it changes when we are five years old.

SARS-CoV-2 is not a particularly mutable virus, but others, which transform very quickly like the flu virus, becoming a new enemy each year. Fortunately, none of the variants in which SARS-CoV-2 appears has undergone major modification in its RNA. But during the large development of the virus, as it currently is, the likelihood of mutations persisting increases. In short, we can say that SARS-CoV-2 is a highly contagious virus and to date, very little mutation. However, high cases are the best ally for future changes, and the best way to deal with them is to lower your copy rate. Now it is not easy to avoid, if it affects our cells, it can copy and transform thousands of times. We can avoid increasing the number of infected individuals through our behavior, so it will definitely decrease.

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Miguel Pita He is a geneticist, professor and researcher at the Autonomous University of Madrid. He is the author of it One day in the life of a virus (Peripheral)

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