Unusual galaxies roam the emptiness of space. We finally know who threw them there

Unusual galaxies roam the emptiness of space.  We finally know who threw them there

After years of research, it has been possible to find out exactly how dwarf galaxies, which appear to be very dim, are born. It is not yet clear why some of these dwarfs were stretched so far, how they formed, and whether the effect of the dark matter is anything special. The portal drew attention to the subject Science Alert.

He is not a dwarf like a dwarf

As he writes With On its web, by definition, dwarf galaxies are tiny galaxies with “only” a few billion stars. However, dwarfs are also giants, and we classify them as dwarf galaxies because of the number of stars, but they are similar to galaxies, such as the Milky Way.

Left: One of the UDGs analyzed in the study, Right: UDG Galaxy DF2, which is almost transparent. ESA / Hubble

We know these galaxies as Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) because they are dwarf galaxies and the stars are spread over a very large area and have only a very low surface brightness. Their brightness is so small that we cannot detect them, the portal warns SciTechDaily.

UDG galaxies, more precisely the “extinct” UDG galaxies, handled by a new study published in the journal Natural astronomy, In which the authors were able to reach really unexpected conclusions. These are in conflict with our model of the formation of these galaxies.

The “extinct” ultra-diffuse galaxy is a rare dwarf galaxy that has stopped forming stars in the gut. However, astronomers involved in new research have identified many such systems through their simulations, finding that these galaxies are not in clusters, but in a large “vacuum”. The “vacuum” in astronomy refers to a large vacuum between large astronomical structures.

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Something is wrong here

This finding contradicts our best assumptions about how such galaxies can form. Further observations and simulations The orbit “backsplash” is from the so-called origin of the “extinct” UDGs, beyond the edges of the host galaxy.

“Backsplash” galaxies are now astronomical objects that appear to be isolated galaxies, but in the past were moons (a satellite galaxy orbiting a large galaxy by gravity), explains co-author Laura Sales.

“Isolated and satellite galaxies have different properties because the physics behind their evolution is completely different.” SciTechDail quotes astronomer Laura Sales. “These backsplash galaxies are interesting because they have the same characteristics of the population of satellites in the system that existed before them, but today they are isolated from it.” Adding.

The researchers used a simulation called TNG50, which in this case acted like a time machine and helped the authors go back in time to observe the evolution of these dwarf systems.

“Extinct” UDGs began to form in the halls of dark matter at unusually high speeds, which could extend these galaxies farther. These UDGs were evolving like other known UDGs in the galaxy cluster, but due to various interventions they were thrown into a more elliptical orbit.

This expulsion into space led to their “backflash” orbits, leading to the loss of gas needed to form stars, causing the galaxies to “extinction” and thus failing to form new stars.

Research suggests that “extinct” UDGs may account for up to 25% of the total UDG population, which means that their incidence is much more common than previously thought. However, it should be noted that this was an identification, or assumption of the existence of galaxies through simulations, so it is still necessary to actually search for them in space.

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Because research has helped to better understand the process by which these galaxies form, astronomers around the world can use these results to tune telescopes and identify many of these isolated UDGs.

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