Third dose, can it be done before 5 months? Should Kovid sufferers do it? Epidemiologist Roberto Couda answers

Third dose, can it be done before 5 months?  Should Kovid sufferers do it?  Epidemiologist Roberto Couda answers

Variant Omichron – The Third dose Essentially, the Vaccine It has shown us that reducing the number of hospitalizations and deaths associated with infections is crucial Covid-19, Explains Roberto Tail, Director of the Infectious Diseases Complex Operating Unit of the Agostino Jemelli Polyclinic. We asked him the most frequently asked questions (Frequently Asked Questions) In the new Omicron variant and in the third dose of Wax.

In a situation where the Omicron variant is becoming more popular, how important is it to take a third dose?
As for other vaccinations: we can call it a booster because it helps to strengthen and consolidate the protective response. In the case of Kovid 19, we observed a progressive decrease in immunity to infection, albeit less against serious disease. Data from Israel, which has been vaccinated very quickly, tells us that immunity is rapidly returning to a higher level through this third booster.

Which Modena or Pfizer vaccine is better?
This is a question they ask me from time to time. The data is absolutely superimposable. No issues with efficiency or security. Heterological vaccination is also safe: I mean the people who were given astraZeneca and Johnson in the first phase of vaccination.

But will the third dose respond to the omiciron variant?
We have data from Israel and the United States: although the new variants are not explicitly manufactured, the third dose of the vaccine (we now have vaccines made from the Wuhan virus: the Chinese archive) provides good protection. But a third dose is needed to strengthen the reaction. Even against Omikron

Can a third dose be taken? Can this be done five months in advance?
Yes. The EMA spoke for a three-month interval. Great Britain and South Korea advanced three months. No efficiency or safety issues.

After completing the first vaccination course, who is recovering from Kovid and should take the third dose?
If a person has an infection, he develops natural immunity, so it is as if they took the third dose. This means that it does not have to be done quickly, but at a convenient time. I repeat: do not do this immediately, do it remotely if necessary.

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How can a virus transform so much, and why?
Viruses make mistakes when they repeat, and mutations occur in their viral genome. When certain points are included in the genome, they can achieve benefits. The advantage in question is that the virus is highly transmitted. For example: The D614G variant was introduced in Italy, which was later replaced by Alpha, which was replaced by Delta. Biological gain is a major contagion of subsequent variants.

Is Omicron more dangerous?
The benefit expressed by each variant is based on the contagion. To date, one variant has not been shown to lead to a more potent infection in clinical terms than the other.

How long does it take for the third dose to work?
The answer is almost immediate. What we do not know is how long it will last: we do not know if we need periodic reminders.

What should be monitored to understand the magnitude of the intensity involved in omechron?
If omega-1 is spread in Italy, it will check the number of infections, the number of hospital admissions and the number of deaths. Thanks to vaccines it is important to check whether there is an increase in deaths or even hospitalizations with high levels of infection. But it is too early to draw conclusions because we have no means to do so. We need to learn what our South African and British colleagues are telling us: what they are saying now is not serious, but it is a fact that needs to be taken seriously.

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What is the situation in Italy?
There are six and a half million people in Italy who have not been vaccinated, followed by two and a half million people over the age of 50, who can develop serious forms. The launch of safe pediatric vaccination is a very good fact. In the United States, millions of children have been vaccinated with the mRna vaccine, and inactivated virus in China: parents should consider this. The success of this campaign will depend on how you explain its significance, and the ISS has done a great job of consulting pediatricians and experts and providing this information. I have a lot of faith in control bodies: Ema, Aifa, Fda. If the vaccine is licensed, it is safe.

When can I know if a fourth dose is needed?
Israel has led scientific research using a lot of data. He quickly vaccinated his population. Thus, it allowed us to test the declining immunity to “declining immunity”. At that moment we found that a third call was needed. We have to wait for the data for the fourth dose possible.

When can we say we are out of it?
When the virus becomes endemic and therefore no longer represents a risk. The World Health Organization (WHO) will officially announce the beginning of Pandemic and announce its end when no SARS-Cov-2 infection has been reported anywhere in the world for 40 consecutive days. That will be the end of the epidemic. Globally, we need to look at things: we’re moving beyond our borders, and we’re looking at more densely populated areas in the world, such as Africa, where there are fewer people who have been vaccinated, so the potential for change is very high.

I’m waiting for the third dose, what should I avoid?
We must avoid infection. I also recommend wearing a mask outside, I avoid crowded places and gatherings and I avoid a lot of dinners as we go to see parties.

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And the masks? Which to use?
Ffp2 protects more: Use it when you’ve been at home for a long time. In general, we would be protected if everyone used a surgical mask. Do not forget about hand hygiene and distance: more than a meter. Americans recommend a “six feet” distance, which is about 1.80 meters.

What are the most interesting areas of research right now?
On January 9, the Chinese provided us with instructions on the virus: thanks to that information, we received vaccines. But this is a path that has been led by decades of research: the mRna vaccine technology began in the 90s. Vaccines are not experimental, which means they are not developed “in a hurry.” We got it thanks to scientific research. Kovid taught a lot about the near, possible epidemics that led to the disasters. An example? Protect the now depleted wildlife habitat to prevent human-to-human contact. Then there is a special case related to vaccines: there are new ones, thanks to an ultra-test technology for the inactivated SARS-Cov-2 virus (similar to the flu vaccine), developed by Valneva and Novavax. A gene is a protein, not a vaccine. All these preparations will be especially useful for the next call. One aspect of vaccines is still being tested: either inhalation (nasal spray type) or oral. In addition to the systemic response, they can also activate the immune response in the upper respiratory tract. This will not only reduce the risk of serious illness but also reduce the risk of infection.

Stefania Piras

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