The Soviet Mars 3 mission was the first to land on the surface of Mars: how was it done?

Mars 3

On Mars, there is a section called 7 Minutes Fear before each landing. The probe enters the atmosphere and ends when the probe reaches the surface. The YouTube channel says that without the help of people on Earth, the search will slow down from a few kilometers per second to zero. Psycho space.

Today, spacecraft are equipped with technologies that can be easily brought to Earth, but in the past, such technologies were not available to scientists. Mission Mars 3, this First It landed on the surface of Mars and flew in May 1971. It was launched shortly after a similar Mars 2 mission. These missions include an exploration and landing module that remains in orbit around the planet.

Historic mission

The orbit was to take a photo of the surface and send scientists to Earth about the planet’s geography or its magnetic field. Inquiry At the same time it was transferred back to Earth from the landing module. The landing module was used to photograph the surface of Mars and send information to scientists about wind speed, temperature, or air pressure.

Soviet missions were ambitious The first attempt to land on the surface of another planet. The Mars 2 landing module failed and crashed on the surface of the red planet. However, the Mars 3 landing module was the first module to succeed Came to the surface.

Landing on Mars is extremely challenging. The probe is significantly reduced and the parachute on which it is equipped is not as effective in the thin atmosphere of the planet as it is on Earth. On the other hand, if the spacecraft is not protected by a heat shield, the burning atmosphere is still dense. This is not an easy task because the Earth Control Team cannot help The landing will take place faster than the signal to go from Earth to Mars.

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Mars 2 landing module enters atmosphere It crashed into the surface of the planet at a very sharp angle. On the other hand, Mars 3 entered a shallow angle, which allowed the use of aerobracking technology. This is a type of brake that uses atmospheric friction to slow down a rocket, or in this case the Mars 3 probe.

Then, the landing module opened the pilot parachute and opened the main parachute when the speed of sound dropped below. Then, the landing module measured the distance from the surface using radar signals. Based on the dimensions of this device, the module was able to take the final landing sequence just before it reached the surface.

Just before the broadcast stops from the Mars 3 landing module. Source: planary.org

However, the Mars 3 landing module crashed to the surface at a speed of 70 kilometers per hour, but was designed to survive the impact. However, the landing module only aired for 20 seconds and sent a poor quality photo.

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