Scientists have observed a black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy that was photographed optically three years ago, and now a large magnetic field around it is being photographed, revealing what happens when matter approaches the speed of light. Swallowing in the black hole. The author is one of the scientists who participated in the project
Written by: Siri UNC, UKRI Fellow Stephen Hawking, UCL. Translation: Avi Belisovsky
In April 2019, the international collaboration of the Horizon Telescope showed the world the first picture of a black hole. It is 6.5 million times heavier than our solar system, located in the M87 galaxy, about 55 million light-years from Earth.
This is the first direct evidence that black holes existed. It also provided an extraordinary experiment in Einstein’s theory of gravity, basic concepts of space and time – the most extreme range of gravity. But we still do not know much about these monsters.
Now, almost two years after this historic achievement, we have released a new image of the M87 with another technology. Our study, published in two new articles in the journal Astronomy, provides important insights into the nigu nature of black holes.
Because of the distance from us, taking this black wire photo is very challenging. It requires a sharp enough sharpness to focus on the orange across the moon or to see individual atoms with one finger. The telescope has succeeded in unprecedented collaboration between scientists around the world, connecting eight terrestrial radio telescopes and making the Earth a giant virtual radio telescope.
Black holes are perhaps the most mysterious objects in nature, leading to some of the most energetic and unprotected phenomena in our universe. Because of the event horizon, we cannot see the black hole directly because nothing beyond the boundaries can escape even light. A substance that falls into a black hole is attracted by its gravity and becomes particularly bright and shiny.
As the event approaches the horizon, the gas heats up due to friction, approaches the speed of light, and emits large amounts of radiation. The telescope is designed to detect radiation in the form of radio waves that emit these gaseous moments before they cross the event horizon.
A new look
The black hole of the M87 provided a great deal of support for the super-giant black people hidden in the white of photographic galaxies. They are the glue that holds the galaxies together and controls their dynamics and evolution. But it is not clear how they work.
New photography uses polarized light – light waves that tend in only one direction – producing material at the end of the black hole. Unpolluted light contains light waves that oscillate in different directions. Light can be polarized if it travels through hot and highly magnetic space zones. Such areas are the strongest magnetic fields around a black hole, and we can learn more about the material it produces by studying the properties of this polarized light.
The new polarized image provides new and remarkable evidence that strong magnetic fields around black holes can launch concentrated jets of charge gas thousands of light-years away. We now assume that such radiant and bright jets, which launch large amounts of matter into the intergalactic medium, are in contact with black holes through these powerful magnetic fields.
To better understand the jet formation process, astronomers have developed different models to explain how matter works near a black hole, but they still do not know how to launch large jets from the galaxy from its center, or do not know how important it is to enter a black hole. We have now found that only theoretical models that present strongly magnetized objects can explain that the event can be seen on the horizon.
Our observations provide new and detailed information about the structure of the magnetic fields adjacent to the black hole. They not only bring us closer to understanding how black holes produce these nigger and powerful jets, but they also explain how hot objects can hide outside a black hole and survive despite gravity. Our study suggests that magnetic fields are strong enough to repel hot gas and overcome the gravitational pull of a black hole. Only the gas escaping through the field can flow inward into the event horizon.
As exciting as these new polar images of the M87’s black hole, it is still just the beginning of the collaboration between the event Horizon telescope and black hole imaging science. We are already working on designing the observation and photography of the black hole in the center of our galaxy, and we hope to publish it later this year. The most beautiful black hole of our galaxy located in Sagittarius.
Compared to the M87, photographing the black hole in our galaxy is more challenging to achieve. We look into the black hole through our dim and stormy interstellar medium – there is a lot of dust and gas along the way – which makes it very difficult to take a clear picture. In the years to come, new telescopes will be added to the “Event Horizon” telescope line on Earth and in space, ensuring sharper and sharper images of black holes and giving a more nuanced understanding of these nig ent entities.
There will still be many surprises in stock. This is a new and exciting period in the study of humanity for the strong gravity and nature of space and time, and it is without a doubt the best yet to come.
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