Both. One general conclusion we can draw is that the resistance was stronger than expected in the old military-national regimes that resulted from the wave of independence of 1940-1960. In the winter and spring of 2011, when hope spread like wildfire from country to country, a little resistance was shown by the revolutionaries during the merry period that followed the first uprising.
Today, the overall picture is clearly grim: a more or less successful democratic transition (in Tunisia), two dictatorial regressions (in Egypt and Bahrain) and three civil wars (Syria, Libya and Yemen).
Another diagnosis that can be made at the local level is that the revolutionary process is continuing. We saw it in 2018-2019 with uprisings in Sudan, Algeria, Lebanon and Iraq. In other words, we are in the long run, measuring these movements of structural transformation over several decades.
To get back to your question, yes, you have to go to the national level to understand local dynamics. That is what the revolutionaries are doing. Experiences, lessons, there is a process going on from each country. For example, the Sudanese did not have the same innocence as the Egyptians. They did not take to the streets after Al Bashir left, they established a balance of power with the army. Is this enough to prevent the revolution from being confiscated by top officials? It remains to be seen.
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