The alphabet of life consists of 4 major letters that represent the nitrogen bases stored in the DNA of an organism’s genetic code. These letters are: adenine, “A”, thiamine “T” (T), cytosine “C” (C), and guanine “G” (G).
RNA, which regulates the translation, transmission, and decoding of genetic information, differs slightly from this law in that it contains nitrogen-based urus (U) instead of thiamine.
Nitrogen bases are specifically linked to encoding genetic information and generating double strands of DNA. Adenine bonds through two hydrogen bonds to thiamine and cytosine bonds to guanine through 3 hydrogen bonds.
Although this alphabet is sufficient for complex cells to store and express their genetic secretions, it does not seem to be sufficient for simple organisms.
Given the nature of the internosine warfare between viruses that infect bacteria – also known as phases – special methods are being developed to eliminate both bacterial prey and both. However, the Phases took this armed contest to a new level.
The story has been coded “Z” (Z) since 1977, when scientists discovered that one of the phases, known as the “cyanophage S-2L”, replaced all the nitrogen adenine bases with “2-aminoadinine” bases. ). Therefore, the alphabet of this virus contains the letters “ZTCG”.
This modification, introduced by this type of phage into its genetic material, seems to aim to provide self-protection against bacteria. The nitrogen base Z 3 binds to thiamine via hydrogen bonds – instead of both as adenine – which means a strong bond. Therefore, it gives new characteristics to the viral genome, making it more resistant to breakage if attacked by bacteria.
However, scientists have not found any other genetically modified phases that contain base Z (Z). Given the difficulty of cultivating cyanophage S-2L in the laboratory, its genetic content has become a puzzle for scientists.
Therefore, we do not know much about how this nitrogen base is formed and how dZ-DNA binds to thiamine; Or what is known as the “Z-genome”.
Disclosures, Isolated In the April 30 issue of Science, there are 3 articles conducted by independent research groups to answer these questions.
Studies have proven First Conducted by Chinese researchersThe second Two important proteins, “PurZ” and “PurB” by French researchers, are involved in the formation of the nitrogen-based “Z” (Z).
Meanwhile, the results of a third study by international scientists led by researchers from France confirmed these results and revealed the enzyme “DpoZ”; This causes the entire Z-genome to bind and form.
By searching databases of gene sequences, scientists have found that there are many phases that contain gene sequences of genes similar to those produced by the above proteins and enzymes.
Of course, this new nitrogen base will provide more genetic diversity, which is what many scientists want. This can be likened to adding a new letter to your language, which means adding new words to your language dictionary.
This applies to a cell: the diversity of its characters means the production of a new component, the acquisition of a new function, and so on. However, there are still many questions we do not know about the Z-genome of these phases.
For example, is the Z-genome compatible with the natural cellular systems found in our cells? Can it be used with the same approach we do in synthetic gene synthesis?
Source : Science Alert + Physical.org + Websites
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