Improving the ability to observe a black hole in the center of the galaxy would make it possible to examine Einstein’s general relativity.

זוהי התמונה הראשונה של Sagittarius A* החור השחור העל-מסיבי במרכז הגלקסיה שלנו. זו העדות החזותית הישירה הראשונה לנוכחות החור השחור הזה.  עד כה הוא זוהה בזכות השפעתו על הכוכבים הקרובים אליו. החור השחור צולם באמצעות טלסקופ אופק האירועים (EHT), מערך שחיבר יחד שמונה מצפי רדיו קיימים ברחבי כדור הארץ כדי ליצור טלסקופ וירטואלי אחד "בגודל כדור הארץ". הטלסקופ נקרא על שם אופק האירועים, כינוי לגבול החור השחור שמעבר לו שום אור לא יכול לברוח. נדרשו חמש שנים לעיבוד התמונה. קרדיט: שותפות EHT

He is an astronomer at the University of Haifa and Oranim College working for the development of the next generation of Horizon Telescope. Schacher Hader explains that it took five years to produce the photo, which was published this week. It is planned to improve the resolution

This is the first image of Sagittarius, the most beautiful black hole in the center of our galaxy. This is the first time an image of this black hole has been obtained. It has so far been recognized for its influence on the nearest stars (when the finds won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics). The black hole was imaged using the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a series of eight existing radio observatories around the Earth creating a “Earth-sized” virtual telescope. The telescope is named after the event horizon, the nickname for the boundary of the black hole where light cannot escape. The film took five years to process. Attribution: EHT Partnership

“Improvements in radio signal reception and the dedication of dedicated radio telescopes will allow us to obtain high-resolution images of the black hole in the center of the galaxy, even video in the future, and to test relativity at the most difficult end.” Thatcher said. The photo, published this week, explains why it took five years to produce and what it intends to do to improve the resolution.

A beautiful picture of a black hole in the center of the Milky Way, published in a series of articles in the Astrophysical Journal on May 12, 2022 – Sagittarius A * was taken on April 6, 2017 in general.

Why did it take so long to decrypt the data and create the image? What is the halo of light that surrounds a black hole in an area known as the event horizon?

Dr. Schacher Hader, Physics Lecturer at the University of Haifa – Oranim Campus is an astronomer and theorist. Events as a researcher, though not an official position on the team. “

In fact, Drs. Hader is already working on a follow-up project – the event will include a significant expansion to the next generation of the Horizon Telescope. Radio telescopic antennas will be designed for the event horizon project. , So the two telescopes have to wait and not only the time available to them but also the good weather at all the sites where they are installed.

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An antenna cannot create an image. The way to create an image, as we have seen, is to combine the measurements on several such plates so that each pair of plates is interconnected and thus merged into a reconstruction (reconstruction) image. Another problem that delayed the publication of the study was the large amount of data produced by each such radio telescope (apparently, big data analysis capabilities would have to wait until it matured in AB), which would need to be replaced (physically, using hard disks, anyway 2017, a .b.).

How to improve? One way is to take one of the plates and lift it into the Earth’s orbit – one plate will suffice because it will make contact with the Earth’s plates. In principle, they did not send a radio telescope into space. This is not necessary because the radio frequencies are low and the atmosphere does not disturb them. But this is another distant vision.

The idea behind NGEHT (Next Generation Event Horizon Telescope) is to add more telescopes and increase the frequency for use in the event Horizon partnership. In this way, the resolution can be improved, perhaps not a thousand times, but with sufficient modesty. Antennas target the black hole in the center of the galaxy for a long time (as opposed to the current state, which receives limited observation time). Long-term monitoring will allow us to produce better statistics. Upgrading viewing time will allow for better sensitivity of the black hole and even “video shooting” – this is part of my research.

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Photon ring

The most important element in the image is the photon ring. As the photons (particles of light) approach the black hole, some of its colossal gravitational force orbits it at different times – depending on the direction and angle at which they come from. “Thus, the black hole acts as a lens that focuses the light around it, and the image obtained from the concentration of this light is a glowing halo of light, because Einstein’s theory of measurement of the effect of photons makes it possible to study general relativity, which requires a long-term measurement.

Evidence of relativity in extreme circumstances

As light rays enter near the black hole, they collect more photons. The beauty of the photon ring is that it is universal. Unlike the gas in the adsorption disk around the black hole, it has a vortex character that is sensitive to many astronomers. Parameters. “The curves of the light rays, or lens (from the language of the lens), the image is very simple and depends only on the mass and angular momentum of the black hole according to general relativity. This universal modification determines its shape: the photon ring.

In addition, any change in the material around the black hole (fluctuations) causes certain points in the image to change at different places and times. Because photons often encircle a black hole, the dots across the ring of photons appear to be “shiny” in a complex way. But over time photography will actually allow us to see layers of images and the displacement of these points will allow us to gain a lot of insight into the black hole – for example what its angular velocity is. This information about these oscillations makes it possible to try to examine Einstein’s equations even in the most extreme conditions that exist in the universe.

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Can a web-space telescope with a view of the edge of the universe help photograph a black hole in the center of the Milky Way?

Dr. Hader: “The Web Space Telescope operates in visible light, especially in the infrared region.

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