This was the beginning of legal unification Treaty of Rome in 1957 Half a century after he gave birth to the EEC and reached the Treaty of Lisbon, he has built what is known today. Agreement on the operation of the European Union (TFUE), The Maastricht Treaty is defined on its basis European Union Treaty.
Maastricht and its additions, along with the TUE, shape the EU into an autonomous international organization and define the architecture of its powers; TFUE, on the other hand, controls the dynamics of the attribution of abilities.
The legal system of the European Union is structured at four levels, which represent a derivative of the principle of attribution. The primary law contains the basic principles stated in the agreements. Compliance with the rules regarding states and institutions operating within the limits established by agreements such as TUE and TFEU.
The representations of the secondary law are as follows: Under the basic principles are the general principles of the law, some of which are unwritten, including the protection of fundamental rights, through which the institutions are, above all, connected. Legal principles such as legal guarantee are independent of their codification.
Third place comes from legal and international agreements: union relations take on a legal form, and signed agreements influence the institutions they lead.
Following this, the European Union’s derivative set of laws is consolidated through legislative rules made from time to time in accordance with the exercise of competencies. This, more than the agreements, affects the domestic state system.
In particular, Article 5 of the EU Convention defines the principle of common attribution of all international organizations: underlining that states in the EU establish an organization as a second level entity which they voluntarily allow. Some skills, It should be clearly separated. The exercise of skills is in accordance with Article 5, which is based on the principles of subsidiaryity and proportionality.
These principles have only appeared in Maastricht, but they were applied long before the time of the European economic community, and must be read from the perspective of protecting the capabilities of the states, as creeping federalism would lead to the overthrow of society. Abilities not directly imparted to them Based on the functional perspective that is the source of the depletion of state capabilities.
The TUE also clearly defines the role of European authorities: the European Parliament, the Council of Europe, and the Commission. Article 14 of the Convention on the Act of the European Union refers to the parliamentary representation of the state of Strasbourg, by reverse proportional criteria.
In fact, Article 14 modifies the selection of MEPs National base, In the Italian case it is divided into five autonomous constituencies subject to proportional representation. Different countries apply different election laws with different limits to divide their seats, which creates a distorted representation that does not lead to a full match of the political will expressed in the vote. A reform proposed by the European Parliament provided for a quota of directly elected representation on a European basis: the current representation is the sum of the various national representations that have a real impact on the political dynamics of different countries in any given situation. .
Article 14 provides that the European Parliament, in conjunction with the Council, shall carry out legislative and budgetary work. Article 15 of your Council of Europe, by law, gives the necessary impetus to the development of the Union and defines its general political directions and priorities. Heads of state or heads of government with executive powers in member states, including its president and commission president, are active members but not effective members. Representative Pes.
The Council is, from a political point of view, the highest body of European institutions: since the introduction of the Lisbon Treaty, its President has not been one of the Heads of State or Heads of Government. This was done to “pollute” the interests of the states represented on the council with the community bodies. The President of the Council of Europe It is elected by a majority of its members for two and a half years. The Council of Europe usually votes “by consensus,” according to a methodology that gives its president too much power over matters of a general nature. The Council of Europe has set its guidelines at the top of the Union, but it does not carry out legislative activities and focuses primarily on issues such as foreign policy.
The European Commission, in accordance with Article 17 TEU, is the body responsible for promoting the public interest of the Union and taking appropriate initiatives for this purpose, consisting of one member from each member state. Its activities share three traditional powers of the state: the Commission in fact consolidates partial privileges. Legislative, executive and judicial powers. The Commission communicates legislative motives, paves the way for proposals to be discussed by Parliament and the Council, implements the activities of the Council, and deals with certain policies, such as competition with the same privileges of a Government. At the same time, the The Commission has a “judicial” function, It enforces by monitoring potential violations of state treaties, which can then be judged by a court. External representation of the community is another important right of the Commission, according to organizations such as the WTO.
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