European Commission: How it works and what its powers are

Commissione europea: come funziona e quali sono i suoi poteri

The European Commission is the executive body of the European Union. He has been its President since 2 July 2019 Ursula von der Lane, Former defense minister in Angela Merkel’s previous government. Headquarters of the Commission Ru della Loi 200 in the Berlemont buildingIn the heart of Brussels’ European quarter. Following the plenary sessions of Parliament, when Parliament convenes in Strasbourg, the Commission also holds its weekly college meeting there.


The European Commission as we know it today was born out of a merger of three different legislative bodies, when it was decided in 1967 to bring the commissions together. European Economic Community, Of European Atomic Energy Community AndHigh Authorities of the European Coal and Steel Society. the first Commission on European Communities, The direct ancestor of the present institution, was the Belgian president Jean Ray. This first Organic Executive is responsible for the success of the Customs Union between member countries.

How the European Commission works

Contains commission 26 commissioners and one president, One member from each EU member state. Allowing the duties of Commissioners Agreement in the European Union 1992 February 7. Members are required to act independently of the interests of the country of origin (Art. 17). The term of office is five years.

The Commission has the responsibility to overseeApplication Of agreements, Draw Balance The Union (which must be submitted to the Council and Parliament for approval), based on this, implements public policies and provides European funding. Each commissioner is assigned to handle a separate document, similar to the ministers in the national states (weather, transport, etc.). In addition to its “domestic” political activities, the Commission represents the European Union Relations with Third Countries And International agreements (By order of the Council).

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The Commission has the broadest authority among European institutions Legislative Initiative. Although the Parliamentary Union is the legislative body, it has very limited powers in proposing legislative texts: the agenda is set by the Commission, which discusses it with MEPs and governments, leading to the formation of a so-called “trilingual” European law.

How the European Commission is elected

The election process is not by popular vote. The heads of state and government of the member states agree Presidential candidate. It needs to be receivedRecognition Of Parliament Absolute majority – 353 votes out of 705. After this “confidence” the President proposes a list of Commissioners, which must be approved by the Council and then approved by each Commissioner and Parliament.

Assignment ofHigh Representative of Foreign Affairs And security policy, Referred directly to the Council. Representative (from 2019 Spanish Joseph Boral)He is the Ex-Officio Vice President of the Commission.


Given the particular method of election, the Commission’s panel reflects the political mentality of the member states. There Commission JunkerIn office from 2014 to 2019, half were members of the European People’s Party (PPE), Adding eight Commissioners of Socialists and Democrats (Why), 5 Commissioners of the Liberal Group (ALDE) And a freelancer.

Results of 2019 European Election, Partially reducing the burden of popularity and leading to a more diverse structure Commission von der Lane. To date, nine commissioners (including Ursula von der Lane) are members of the People’s Party, and nine Socialists and Democrats (including Italian) Paulo Gentiloni), Four liberals, four independents, and one reformist conservative (ECR).

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The offices of the Commissioners and the structure of the von der Lane Commission are as follows:

  • Commission President: Ursula von der Lane – Germany / PPE
  • Other Foreign and Security Representative: Joseph Borel – Spain / PSE
  • European Meteorological Commissioner: France Timmermans (Executive Vice President, European Green Deal) – Netherlands / PSE
  • European Commissioner for Competition: Margaret Westergeer (Executive Vice President, Europe Ready for the Digital Age) – Denmark / ALDE
  • European Commissioner for Financial Services: Valdis Dombrovsky (Executive Vice President of a People’s Economy) – Latvia / EPP
  • Vice President for Values ​​and Transparency: Vera Jorowa – Czech Republic / ALDE
  • Vice President for Promoting European Lifestyle: Margaritas Shinas – Greece / PPE
  • Vice President for Interstate Relations and Strategic Perspectives: Maroš Šefčovič – Slovakia / PSE
  • Vice President of Democracy and Demography: Dubravka Suka – Croatia / PPE
  • European Commissioner for Budget and Governance: Johannes Hahn – Austria / PPE
  • European Commissioner Justice: Didier Reinders – Belgium / ALDE
  • European Commissioner for Innovation, Research, Culture, Education and Youth: Marija Gabriel – Bulgaria / PPE
  • European Health Commissioner: Stella Kiriakido – Cyprus / PPE
  • European Commissioner Energy Commissioner: Kadri Simpson – Estonia / ALDE
  • European Commissioner for International Partnership: Jutta Urpilainen – Finland / PSE
  • European Commissioner for Internal Markets: Thierry Breton – France / Independent
  • European Trade Commissioner: Phil Hogan – Ireland / PPE
  • European Commissioner for Economy: Paulo Gentiloni – Italy / PSE
  • European Commissioner for the Environment, Oceans and Fisheries: Virginius cinchovicius – Lithuania / Nessuno
  • European Commissioner for Labor and Social Rights: Nicholas Schmidt – Luxembourg / PSE
  • European Commissioner for Equality: Helena Daly – Malta / PSE
  • European Commissioner of Agriculture: Janusz Wojciechowski – Polonia / ECR
  • European Commissioner for Conciliation and Reform: ELISA Ferreira – Portugal / PES
  • European Commissioner for Transport: Adina -Ioana Vălean – Romania / EPP
  • European Commissioner for Crisis Management: Janus Lenarsic – Slovenia / Independent
  • European Commissioner for Home Affairs: Ylva Johansson – Svezia / PSE
  • European Commissioner for Neighborhood Policy and Extension: Oliver Verheli – Hungary / Independent
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Ursula von Der Lane, former defense minister in Angela Merkel’s previous government, has been in office since July 2, 2019.

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