In Glasgow, the COP26 talks concluded on November 13 (one day after the originally planned closing date).
Acceptance of the “Glasgow Agreement” and the tears of the COP26 President
The final document of COP26 is called the “Glasgow Agreement on Climate Change.” It reflects the interests, contradictions and situation of the political will in today’s world », In the words of UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres(1). Weather issues during this COP are far from being recalled, unless it is appropriate for the task(2), The text is evaluated ” At that time the countries were balanced with what they could accept and their differences were taken into account “. In other words, it is.” Worst result Summarized by the Chief Negotiator of New Zealand.
Meanwhile ” Step-by-step elimination of coal power and inefficient fossil fuel subsidy “COP26 is included in the draft agreement (for the first time in the history of COPs – the Paris Agreement does not specifically mention fossil fuels), the final document is limited to the commitment of the parties” aAccelerate efforts “Gradually reduce coal consumption and end subsidies” Ineffective In favor of fossil fuels.
This last-minute change came under the influence of China and India (which accounted for 54.3% and 11.6% of global coal consumption, respectively, by 2020). The tears of COP26 President Alok Sharma were one of the highlights of the summit when this change was announced. This compromise once again underscores the difficulty of negotiations under COPs (based on ” The nature of consensus and versatility As Patricia Espinosa, Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, reminds us).
Inadequate emission reduction commitments
The Glasgow Agreement welcomes the new commitments announced by many countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (known as “INDC” in English). Greenhouse gas emissions are expected to be 45% lower by 2030 than in 2010 (to limit heating to 1.5 C).(3)), Pledged contributions – if properly honored – will result in a 13.7% increase in emissions by 2030.(4).
Christian de Perthuis, the founding economist of the Climate Economic Chair, underscores the end of the hypocrisy surrounding fossil fuels: ” More important than a few lines in the press release is the issue of expulsion from fossil fuels. Indirectly we finally talk about it, which puts the major producers and exporters of this kind of energy in place. ⁇(5).
Glasgow laments development assistance from developing countries to support climate change in developing countries “” Raise $ 100 billion “Not out of 2020, calling for a compilation” By significantly increasing support for developing country parties from all sources to reach the level required to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement, more than $ 100 billion per year .
as well as, “ Under previous COPs, countries have not been successful in adopting laws that allow the implementation of quotas or emission credit trading systems that help achieve emission reduction goals. , Recalls Christian de Pertuis. In Glasgow, “ Key blocking points (risk of double number, integrity of mechanism) were removed. Progress is important because the emergence of carbon prices will reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is left to concrete the ground, it will take some time and the rules are very complicated. .
Initiatives announced during COP26
As in previous COPs, many other initiatives announced in Glasgow have been met with satisfaction.(6). More than 100 countries (including China and India, including the goal of reducing global methane emissions by 30% by 2030. This is not a greenhouse gas, however).
The United Nations also states: More than 40 countries, including major coal consumers such as Poland, Vietnam and Chile, have agreed to abandon coal, one of the major generators of CO emissions.2 Eleven countries, including France, Costa Rica, Denmark, Ireland, France, Denmark and Costa Rica, have announced that they will form an alliance. Beyond oil and gas Set deadlines for domestic oil and gas exploration and extraction.
In the joint statement(7), US and China pledge To everyone’s surprise To strengthen their climate cooperation over the next decade.
COP27 will take place in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt by the end of 2022.
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