According to the timeless formula of her grandmother, Queen Victoria, the sun never sets in the country of Elizabeth II.
The British Empire and its allies, the former dominions (Elizabeth II was the head of state of fifteen kingdoms, a position unparalleled in the world), despite the decolonization of one of the leaders of the geopolitical uprisings of the XX, are still spread over five continents.E Century.
In order to maintain close ties with its colonies in the liberation process, the United Kingdom can rely on the Commonwealth, an organization formed in 1949, to bring together all the states with strong historical and linguistic ties to it. Exactly 70 years ago, when Elizabeth II ascended the throne, there were now fifty – four nations, comprising nine of them, comprising one – third of mankind. ).
An amazing “island” stable in a turbulent world: thanks to decolonization or various national divisions, the number of states in the world has almost doubled since the beginning of Elizabeth II’s reign: there were 109 at the time. Today more than 200, not counting a hundred free territories, are in dispute or in fact only recognized.
At the beginning of Elizabeth II’s rule, the world was formed into about two ideological and military “camps”, the Soviet Union (USSR, Eastern Europe), the West (Western Europe, North America, Japan, Australia, as well as the Pacific, Indochina, and most of Africa, the French and British). Outside these two spheres of influence were Latin America and Indonesia, with China still a weak economy and the independent India-Pakistan duo for just three years. The idea of a Third World, which emerged from the pen of the French demographer Alfred Xavi shortly after the accession of Elizabeth II, was later adopted.
This geopolitical situation “exploded” with the decolonization of Africa and Asia, the rise of China, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the rise of Islamism, leading to a polygamous world.
A mixture of republics and monarchies
The motto of the monarchy, “Never complain, never explain,” seems to follow, and the Commonwealth has gone through these geopolitical upheavals, although some members, mainly in Africa or the Indian subcontinent, have not been spared without coups and revolutions. Civil wars. Only a genuine armed struggle has opposed its two members, Pakistan and India.
Even a consensus that can be explained by a stability, the relatively quiet political life of its members, as well as the flexibility of an organization without political and administrative oversight – only one secretariat has been allocated to the budget in London. 40 million.
70 years of rule: The life of Elizabeth II in pictures
Yes Commonwealth Chaired by Elizabeth II, it opens its annual summit, with only a quarter of its members recognizing her as head of state (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, a dozen countries in the Antilles and the Pacific). Thirty-three of them are republics (India, Pakistan, South Africa, Nigeria, etc.) and five monarchies (Brunei, Swaziland, Lesotho, Malaysia and Tonga). Lack of leadership to question the political significance of the Commonwealth, The Times goes so far as to provoke a “noise and hollow toy” in 1964.
Two countries with no historical ties to London, Mozambique, a former Portuguese colony, and Rwanda, formerly under German control, have been members of the Commonwealth since 1995. Several members have been expelled for blatant violations of the charter of an organization that advocates democracy and the rule of law. Of law and human rights, before restoration. Some went on their own before returning home after the coup. However, two countries left the organization forever: the Republic of Ireland and Zimbabwe.
Such a demographic and technological revolution
After Elizabeth II ascended the throne, these movements were not limited to geopolitics. At that time, the world had three times less inhabitants than it does today, with a life expectancy of less than 50 years, and today it is about 73 years. Global GDP has increased … Forty-two times the literacy rate for adults has increased from 56% to 85%.
Contraceptive pills (1957), microprocessor (1969), organ transplants (1954), nuclear power plants (1954), cell phones (1973), the Internet or artificial satellites have not yet been invented (1957). It was first performed in June 1953, one year after the accession to the throne, at the coronation of Elizabeth II, in connection with a retelling of an event in Mondovision.
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