Blackened photography reinforces Einstein’s theory of general relativity

Blackened photography reinforces Einstein's theory of general relativity

Physicists are a step towards breaking down one of the most startling questions in science: how to reconcile theories of general relativity with quantum physics. The answer may be within the stunning black holes. The conflict at the heart of modern physics has been growing for more than a century, leading to a pair of papers by Albert in 1905. Einstein. One explained his general theory of relativity, which describes the universe on a large scale by explaining gravity and its interactions with space, the planets orbiting the sun, galaxies colliding, and clinging to the earth rather than floating into space. Another introduced the concept of quanta, which has since been developed to describe the universe at the subatomic level, including how atoms and particles interact with each other. The problem is that the two do not match. The fabric of the universe must be smooth and continuous for general relativity. Events are crucial at this level, i.e. all results can be traced to a cause. Quantum mechanics divides a universe into energy packets or ‘quanta’. In this case, the events caused by the reaction of the particles occur in jumps, also known as quantum jumping, using probability rather than certain results. Although the difference may seem as small as the difference between high-resolution images showing more details than low-resolution, in practice this means that events are possible in a quantum world that does not exist in the space-time world, because even particles can ‘connect’ when they are not in physical proximity to each other. In 2014, Dutch researchers showed that electrons could instantly influence each other, even at a distance of a mile. When you try to apply a micro blow to a macro, or vice versa, things go terribly wrong. Relativity gives irrelevant answers when you scale to quantum size, and finally creates infinite values ​​when describing gravity. Conversely, quantum fields carry energy even in an empty space; According to Einstein’s theory, energy and mass are equal (E = mc2), so increasing the energy by expanding a quantum field is equivalent to building mass. The amount of energy in a field is so dense that it creates a black hole that folds back into the universe itself. Not compatible. Now scientists at the University of Arizona have found a new way to test theories, not only that general relativity is subject to scrutiny, but is 500 times harder to defeat. “We expect the theory of gravity [combining the two opposing theories] To be different from general relativity, but there are many ways for one to modify it. Whatever the correct theory, we found that in the case of black holes it does not differ significantly from relativity. We’re really looking forward to any possible improvements, “said Dimitrios Saltis, a professor of astronomy in Eurasia. Letters describing the findings of Saltis, a project scientist collaborating with the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) who is the lead author of a new paper published in Physical Review, were used by the team to examine general relativity. The first photo The magnificent black hole and its shadow were captured using EHT. The black hole in the center of the Messier 87 galaxy, about 55 million light-years from Earth, is about 6.5 billion times the mass of our Sun. The size of a black hole is proportional to its mass: the larger the black hole, the larger its shadow. “At that time we could not ask the opposite question: how different is the theory of gravity from general relativity, yet it corresponds to the size of the shadow.” UArizona Steward Theory Fellow Pierre Christian said. “We wondered if we could do anything with these observations to eliminate some of the alternatives.” Their answer was to discard the ones that gave results that did not match the observed shadow, and to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the various modifications in the theory. “In this way, we can now determine without worrying about other details whether any alternative event to general relativity is compatible with the Horizon telescope observations,” said Lea Mediros, a postdoctoral fellow at the Institute for Advanced Studies. Of EHT collaboration since she was a U.S.A. graduate student. “Using the gauge we developed, we showed that the measured size of the black hole shadow on the M87 tightens the wiggle room for changing Einstein’s general relativity. The new and toughest black hole fails in the shadow test. ” elzel said. “But it’s true, that when you do some testing, you’ll find that the results deviate from the general prediction of relativity. Does not appear. We say, all right, but first we have another gauge so we can do a test 500 times better, and that gauge is the shadow size of a black hole. “When we get an image of a black hole in the center of our own galaxy, we can still control the deviations from general relativity,” she said. Next on the team’s list is to capture high-resolution images with other telescopes, including the Greenland Telescope, the 12m telescope at Kit Peak near Tucson, and the Northern Extended Millimeter Array Observatory in France. “Along with gravitational wave observations, this marks the beginning of a new era in black hole astronomy,” Saltis said.

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