5 Things to Know About the Maastricht Treaty

5 Things to Know About the Maastricht Treaty

The Maastricht Treaty was established by the European Union

With the Treaty of Maastricht, the European Economic Community (CEC) was born in Rome on March 25, 1957, becoming the EC (European Community), one of the organs of the European Union (EU) created on this occasion.

It was signed by 12 countries

The Maastricht Treaty was signed by 12 countries, making it one of the first 12 member states of the newly created European Union:

  • Germany,
  • Belgium,
  • Denmark,
  • Spain,
  • France,
  • Greece,
  • Ireland,
  • Italy,
  • Luxembourg,
  • Netherlands,
  • Portugal,
  • United Kingdom.

Since then, many other countries have joined the European Union:

  • Austria,
  • Sweden,
  • Finland,
  • Cyprus,
  • Czech Republic,
  • Estonia,
  • Hungary,
  • Latvia,
  • Lithuania,
  • Malta,
  • Poland,
  • Slovakia,
  • Slovenia,
  • Bulgaria,
  • Romania.

Croatia was the last country to join the European Union, with 28 member states in 2013. By the end of 2020, with Brexit, the United Kingdom had left the European Union, marking the return of 27 to Europe.

The Maastricht Treaty is based on three pillars

The EEC was based on three communities:

  • European Community,
  • European Coal and Steel Community,
  • European Atomic Energy Community.

With the signing of the Maastricht Treaty, all three communities will become part of the European Union. The second rests on three pillars:

  • European Community under Community Activity (replacing EEC),
  • Public Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP),
  • Police and Judicial Co-operation in Justice and Home Affairs (JHA), both under intergovernmental co-operation.

The Maastricht Treaty was the first to recognize European citizenship

If European citizenship continues to be subject to the concept of responsible nationalism of the states, its establishment through the Maastricht Treaty will be a decisive step.

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Thus, every European citizen can now choose his or her place of residence, move freely within the European Union, and exercise certain rights (the right to apply before the European Parliament, the right to vote, to be elected in the state in which one resides, the European and municipal elections, and the possibility of a European ombudsman).

The Union promises citizens an area of ​​freedom, security and justice without internal borders, ensuring the free movement of individuals within it, along with appropriate measures on external border control, asylum, immigration and defense. Fight cross-border crime. “, Act 3 refers to the agreement with the European Union.

The Maastricht Treaty laid the foundation for a single currency

The plan to establish a single currency (then called the ECU) common to all EU member states was not born out of the Maastricht Treaty, the second is to put it in the third paragraph of the first part and the third part of the three steps to achieve it.

  • January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1993 : Free movement of capital among member states.
  • January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1998 : Integrate the economic policies of the Member States by strengthening the coordination of monetary policy by reducing inflation, interest rates and exchange rate fluctuations by limiting the general deficit and debt. The European Monetary Institute (EMI), created in 1994, is central to this process.
  • January 1, 1999 to date: It creates a single currency and gradually commissions this currency, eventually calling it the Euro and establishing the European Central Bank (ECB), which must implement a single monetary policy.
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